Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic liver disease.

Mode of Transmission (How it spreads)

Hepatitis B is most usually transmitted vertically; from mother to child at birth (perinatal transmission) or horizontally through (exposure to infected blood), particularly from an infected child to an uninfected kid during the first 5 years of life, or in highly endemic areas.

Horizontal transmission is not only found in children within the age of five years but also other age groups.

Hepatitis B can also be transmitted by needlestick injuries, piercing, and contact with contaminated blood and bodily fluids such as saliva and menstrual, vaginal, and seminal secretions.

Hepatitis B can be transmitted sexually, especially in unvaccinated men who have sex with males (gay) and heterosexual people who have several sex partners or have sexual contact with sex workers.

Infection can also arise during medical, surgical, and dental operations, tattooing, or the use of razors, or any sharp objects and other devices contaminated with infected blood or body fluids.

Viral survival ability  of the virus

The hepatitis B virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. During this time, the virus can still cause infection if it enters the body of a person who is not protected by the vaccine.

The incubation period of the hepatitis B virus is 75 days on average, but can vary from 30 to 180 days (that is one to six months). The virus may be detected within 30 to 60 days after infection and can persist and develop into chronic hepatitis B.

Who is at risk of HB?

  • Children of infected mothers
  • Unvaccinated People in endemic areas
  • Healthcare workers and others who may be exposed to blood and blood products through their work
  • People who frequently require blood or blood products, dialysis patients and recipients of solid organ transplantations
  • People in prisons
  • People who inject drugs
  • Household and sexual contacts of people with chronic HBV infection
  • People with multiple sexual partners
  • Travellers who have not completed their HBV doses, who should be offered the vaccine before leaving for endemic areas.
  • People who take alcohol
  • Drug addicts and drug abusers (at the risk of liver damage)
  • Risk of chronic liver disease is higher in children when compared to adult.

Symptoms of Hepatitis B
Most people do not experience any symptoms when newly infected.

However, some people have acute illness with symptoms that last several weeks, including yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain.

A small subset of persons with acute hepatitis can develop acute liver failure, which can lead to death.

Hepatitis B virus can also cause a chronic liver infection that can later develop into cirrhosis (a scarring of the liver) or liver cancer.

Diagnosis of HB
It is not possible, on clinical grounds, to differentiate hepatitis B from hepatitis caused by other viral agents, hence, laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis is essential.

A number of blood tests are available to diagnose and monitor people with hepatitis B. They can be used to distinguish acute and chronic infections.

Treatment of Hepatitis B

Acute hepatitis B has no specific treatment. As a result, treatment is focused on ensuring comfort and proper nutritional balance, as well as replacing fluids lost due to vomiting and diarrhoea.

The most important thing is to avoid taking medications that aren’t absolutely necessary, as they will need the liver (that is already under attack) to be ‘’digested’’.

Chronic hepatitis B infection can be managed with medications, including antiviral drugs taken orally.

Cirrhosis treatment can decrease the progression of the disease, lower the incidence of liver cancer, and enhance long-term survival.

However, the medication does not cure hepatitis B infection, but only prevents the virus from replicating. As a result, most people who begin hepatitis B therapy must continue it for the rest of their lives.

In many resource-constrained areas, access to hepatitis B diagnosis and treatment remains limited.

In 2016, 10.5 percent (27 million) of the more than 250 million persons living with HBV infection were aware of their infection.

Global treatment coverage is 16.7 percent of those diagnosed (4.5 million). Many people are only diagnosed once they have advanced liver disease.

Prevention (How not to get infected)
1. Take the vaccine

2. Vaccination of new-born

3. Vaccination of individuals who missed or did not complete the doses before

4. Vaccination of travellers going to where the disease is common

5. Avoid sharing sharp objects with others e.g; clipper, nail cutter, razor blade, needles etc.

6. Avoid multiple sexual partners

7. Know your Hepatitis B status
8. Share this publication with others.

Hepatitis B vaccination is the cornerstone of hepatitis B prevention.

The World Health Organization advises that all infants receive the hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible after delivery, preferably within 24 hours, followed by two or three doses of hepatitis B vaccination at least four weeks apart to complete the series.

A timely birth dose is an efficient method of preventing transmission from mother to a child

According to the most recent WHO estimates, the proportion of children under the age of five who are chronically infected with HBV has reduced to just under 1% in 2019, down from over 5% in the pre-vaccine era, which lasted from the 1980s to the early 2000s.

The global rollout of the hepatitis B vaccination over the last two decades has been a huge public health success story, contributing to a drop in HBV infections in youngsters.

In 2019, global coverage of three doses of the vaccine reached 85 percent, up from roughly 30 percent in 2000.

The coverage of the hepatitis B vaccine birth dosage, on the other hand, remains unequal. For example, global coverage of the HBV birth dosage is 43 percent, whereas coverage in the WHO African Region is barely 6 percent.

More than 95 percent of new-borns, children, and young people have protective antibody levels after receiving the entire vaccine series. Protection lasts at least 20 years and is likely to last a lifetime.

As a result, WHO does not recommend booster immunizations for anyone who have finished the three-dose immunization program.

If they live in a country with low or intermediate endemicity, all children and adolescents under the age of 18 who have not previously been immunized should receive the vaccine.

According to the above figures, there were so much commendable efforts by the WHO in the combat against the deadly virus in the last recent decades.

however the big BUT is that a large number of the world population are unaware of their status, therefore the easier the spread among the population.



Written by M.O Adeleke  A Veterinary Medicine Student from Unilorin

Hepatitis is a viral infection that causes inflammation of the liver, which are of four types

  • Hepatitis Virus A (HAV)
  • Hepatitis Virus B (HBV)
  • Hepatitis Virus C (HCV)
  • Hepatitis Virus D (HDV)
  • Hepatitis Virus E (HEV)

Hepatitis Virus B (HBV) is a dsDNA enveloped, replicates using reverse transcriptase and is a member f the hepadnavirus family.

Hepatitis B or Hepatitis virus B has an incubation period of 120 days and can replicate to become Hepatitis Virus D (HDV)

Transmission of Hepatitis

Hepatitis B can be transmitted through infected blood or body fluids like saliva or Semen.

Hepatitis B can also be contacted by sharing sharp object which has cause skin puncture on infected person

Hepatitis B can be transmitted through placenta or mucosal contact

NB: Hepatitis B isn’t contacted through Hugging and hand holding


Who are at the risk of Hepatitis B?

1. Those that take intravenous drugs
2. Those that have sex with infected individual
3. Health care workers needle injured treating infected person.


Symptoms of Hepatitis B

  • Infected person will have cirrhosis or liver failure
  • Infected person will have liver cancer
  • It will lead to death at chronic level


WHO data on Hepatitis B

HBV have a high mortality rate in infected children 90% compared to infected adults 10% which are chronic carriers


Treatment or Management of Hepatitis B

Vaccination for children:
highly recommended for children as part of standard vaccinations (1 dose at birth and 18months old)

Vaccination for Adults:
All health care workers that are occupational expose to blood or other infectious materials are to be vaccinated

All adults at greater risk ( those that uses intravenous drugs and those with multiple sex partners)


There is no cure for HBV but can be maintained and sustained


Written by Gemmy💎 from Babcock University

Yes your CGPA matters!

CGPA means Cumulative Grade Point Average and it is used to determine the honour you fall in i.e first class honour ,second class honour amongst the rest in an institution.

Your GPA, or Grade Point Average, is a number that indicates how well or how high you scored in your courses on average,however the difference between GPA and CGPA is that GPA is over a short period of time e.g per semester while CGPA is over a longer period of time which may be over a session or overall academic sessions.

To start with ,you need to know the points awarded to each scores and grades as listed below:

70-100 =A= 5 points

60-69 = B =4 points

50-59 =C = 3 points

45-49 =D =2 points

44-40 = E =1 point

0-39 =F=0 point


Then,you should know the Nigerian Universities grading system ,let’s use Unilorin as an instance since she operate on a 5.0 grading system

4.5-5.0 = First class
3.5 -4.49 = Second class upper
2.4-3.49 = Second class lower
1.5 -2.39 = Third class
1.00-1.49 = Pass


How to calculate CGPA manually

Why manually?,Your GP calculator is prone to error hence to see your true grade, here’s how to go about it.

CGPA = total (grade×unit)/total units

So let’s say in 1st semester you offer courses with code 1,2,3,4,5,6 and total units of 10 with the following grades in each courses; A,A,A,B,B,C

4 courses with code 1,2,3,4 are 2 units each and a unit in the rest, that is 5 and 6
adding up each unit =2+2+2+2+1+1 =10 units

Total units is usually summed up in your course form by adding up the units for each semester

As stated above A is 5 ,B is 4 and C is 3
So let’s add up total scores for 3As,2Bs and a C =5×2 +5×2 +5×2 +4×2 +4×1 +3×1 =35
Hence your GPA for that semester =35/10= 3.5

Also Let’s say you have grades 2As ,1B and 1C in 2nd semester in a 4 courses with code 1,2,3,4 .if the total units of courses is 8 i.e 2 units in courses 1 and 2 , 3 units in course 3 and finally a unit in course 4
Then Total score for 2nd semester = grade ×unit
=5×2 +5×2 + 4×3 +3×1

Hence CGPA =Total score /total units
Recall that for first semester total score is 35 and for second semester is also 35

Total score =35+35=70

For first semester total units is 10 while for second semester total units is 8

Total units =10+8=18

CGPA =total score/total units

CGPA = 70/18= 3.88


Common mistake when calculating your CGPA Manually

It is wrong to get your CGPA by dividing the total GP obtained from first and second semester by 2
To get GPA for second semester that’s 35/8= 4.38

That is =3.5 from first + 4.38 from 2nd /2


You see that 3.88 is totally different from 3.94? This means calculating your CGPA is more accurate manually.


Note:You can get your CGPA for all your academic sessions by adding up all grades and dividing by the total unit .

Hope this was helpful?

Thanks for reading…


No part of this article may be edited, copied without the permission of the author


If you successfully take charge of your blood pressure, naturally, you will probably have a healthy lifestyle, avoid, delay or reduce the necessity for medication.

Here are some tips to maintaining a steady blood pressure:

1. Exercise regularly:

Regular physical activity — like 150 minutes per week, or about half-hour most days of the week — can lower your pressure by about 5 to eight torrs if you’ve got high blood pressure.

It is vital to be consistent because if you stop exercising, your pressure can rise again.


If you’ve got an elevated pressure level, exercise can facilitate your avoid developing hypertension.

If you have already got hypertension, regular physical activity can bring your pressure level right down to safer levels.

Some samples of cardiopulmonary exercise you’ll attempt to lower pressure level include walking, jogging, cycling, swimming or dancing. In addition, you can  try high-intensity interval training, involving alternating short bursts of intense activity with subsequent recovery periods of lighter activity.

Strength training, sometimes also help reduce pressure. Aim to incorporate strength training exercises a minimum of two days per week. Ask your doctor about developing an exercise program.


2. Limit alcohol intake:

 Alcohol will be both good and bad for your health. By drinking alcohol only sparsely — generally one drink daily for ladies, or two each day for men — you’ll potentially lower your vital sign by about 4 pressure unit.

But that protective effect is lost if you drink an excessive amount of alcohol. Drinking over moderate amounts of alcohol can actually raise pressure by several points.


3. Quit smoking:

Each cigarette intake increases your vital sign for several minutes after you finish. Stopping smoking helps your pressure level return to normal.

Quit smoking

The overall health can be improved by quitting smoking and this in turn also reduce the risk of cardiomyopathy. People that quit smoking may live longer than those that never quit smoking.


4. Reduce your stress:

Chronic stress may contribute to high vital sign. More research is required to see the consequences of chronic stress on vital sign.

Occasional stress can also contribute to high pressure level if you react to worry by eating unhealthy food, drinking alcohol or smoking.

Take your time to give some thought to what causes you to feel stressed, like work, family, finances or illness. Once you discover what’s causing your stress, consider how you’ll eliminate or reduce it.


5. Cut back on caffeine:

The role caffeine plays in pressure level continues to be debated. Caffeine can raise pressure up to 10 pressure unit in those who rarely consume it.

But those that drink coffee regularly may experience little or no effect on their pressure level.

Cut back caffeine

Although the long-term effects of caffeine on the vital sign aren’t clear, it’s possible pressure level may slightly increase.

To see if caffeine raises your blood pressure, check your pressure within half-hour of drinking a caffeinated beverage. If your force per unit area increases by 5 to 10 millimeters of mercury, you will be sensitive to the vital sign raising effects of caffeine. Ask your doctor about the results of caffeine on your pressure.


6. Eat a healthy diet:

Your blood pressure can be kept on a low if you make a habit of consuming a diet that’s rich in whole grains, fruited, vegetables and dairy products; low-key, precisely.

Saturated fats and cholesterol can be skimped too.

Changing your eating habits is not easy, but you can have a healthy diet with these 3 tips:

  • Keep a food diary.

You can shed surprising light on your true eating habits if you try and write down what you eat for just one week. Monitor what, how much, why and when you eat.

  • Consider boosting potassium.

The effects of sodium on the blood pressure can be lessened by taking potassium. The best sources of potassium as a food are fruits and vegetables. Supplements are not considered. Get tips from your doctor about the levels of potassium that suits you better.

  • Be a smart shopper.

When you shop, read food labels. When you’re dining out, stick to your healthy eating plan, too.


7. Reduce sodium in your diet:

At least, about 5 to 6 mm Hg or blood pressure can be reduced, if peradventure you have high blood pressure by just a small reduction in your sodium diet, thereby improving your health.

Sodium intake has different effect on blood pressure of different people. In lieu of this, sodium intake should not exceed 2,300milligrams (mg) a day or less.

However, 1500 mg a day sodium level or less is ideal for most adults.


8. Losing weight:

As weight increases, blood pressure increases, too. Overweight can also cause breathing disruption while you sleep(sleep apnea), which in turns, raises your blood pressure.

Lose some weight

Losing weight is one of the most effective changes in lifestyle for controlling pressure of the blood. If you’re overweight or obese, losing even a small considerable amount of weight can help reduce the blood pressure.

In short, you may reduce about 1mmHg of your blood pressure with each kilogram of wight you shed.


9. Check your blood pressure frequently at home and visit the doctor often;

You can keep tabs on your blood pressure, make certain that your changes in life are working, alert you and your doctor to potential health issues if you engage in proper home monitoring.

There’s a wide availability of blood pressure monitors, without a prescription. Be sure to discuss with your doctor about home monitoring before you engage in it.


10. Regular visits to your physician:

If your vital sign is well-controlled, visit your doctor about how often you would like to test it. Your doctor may suggest a check per day or less often.

If you make any changes in your medications or other treatments, your doctor may recommend you check your force per unit area starting period after treatment changes and per week before your next appointment.

Thanks for reading…

Updated  on 2nd  of March, 2021

No part of this article may be edited, copied without the permission of the author

Loneliness doesn’t necessarily imply being alone because you can be alone, yet not lonely. And you can feel lonely in a houseful of people.

It’s a feeling that you’re cut off from people, with no one to confide in. It can happen to children, older adults, and everyone in between as it is a lack of meaningful relationship.

Presently, we have more access to each other than ever before, thanks to the introduction of internet. You might feel more connected to the world when you get attached to “friends” on social media, but it doesn’t always suppress the ache of loneliness.

Almost everybody feels lonely sometimes, and yes, it’s not necessarily detrimental. It’s sometimes a temporary state of affairs due to circumstance, like movement to a new town, divorce, or lose a loved one. Getting involved in social activities and meeting people can usually help you move forward.

Solution to Lonliness

If you are experiencing loneliness, or you in of someone experiencing it, the solutions can be very simple.

Such a person should try out any of these steps;

1. Reach out to family and friends :

Even if it’s just with a phone call or a video call, that’ll do, too.  A quick text, call or seeing someone’s face on a screen can be of great help to improving your well-being.

Make contacting people a regular part of your day. It’s like taking medicine or exercising.

2.stroll out of your home when you are bored

3. If a club interest you, join one; probably a book club, jazz club, collector club, or a spiritual community be it a church, or mosque. Or you might become a volunteer at an organization you support. Dr Miller said, and I quote; “When you’re alone, you focus too much on yourself and dwell on regrets or worries. When you’re with other people, turn your focus outward. When you’re thinking less about yourself, you’re definitely worrying less about yourself,”

4. If you are physically and mentally able to care for it, you can get yourself a pet;

they make wonderful companions, and they provide many emotional and physical benefits.

5. Try and have simple conversations with people. This will stimulate your brain and make you feel better. You can sign up for visit volunteers for centers offering visitors program. You definitely will strike up conversation as you mingle with the people.

But this seems difficult at times, and the longer you are isolated, the harder it can be to making a change. Probably you don’t know what to do, or maybe you’ve tried without success.

This can lead to a problem, because persistent loneliness can have a negative impact on your emotional and physical health. Loneliness has in fact been associated with depression, suicide, and physical illness.

Thanks for reading…