Cleft palate is the opening of the roof of mouth (palate) which occur when the facial feature of an Unborn child refuses to close completely.

Signs and symptoms of cleft palate

  • Difficulty in feeding
  • Inability to swallow properly
  • Ear infections

Causes of cleft palate are due to two situations

1. Genetic factor:An Unborn child may inherit from one of his parents

2. Environmental factors: What the parents especially the mother is exposed to while pregnant.

Risk factors of cleft palate

This is associated with the parents most especially the one carrying the pregnancy as it is a congenital defect.


They include:

  • Family history
  • Ingesting certain substances in pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • Diabetics

Cleft palate is more common in females than male.

Surgery can correct cleft palate with minimal scarring

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What is child abuse?

This is any form of treatment given to someone below 18yrs which is not right according to the law and constitution.

It can be in the form of physical, sexual and mental abuse.

Types of child abuse

1.physical abuse: This involves exerting physical force on a child intentionally such as hitting, biting,strangling a child etc.

2. Sexual abuse:This involves using a child for your desires such as incest (sex between family members), rape etc.

3. Emotional abuse: This involves patterns such as denying a child love, bullying,isolating a child etc.

4. Neglect: Failure to provide for a child’s needs such as foods, clothing,accommodation and education.


Symptoms of Down syndrome in children

What you need to know as a youth

Children are abused most time because the adults feel they are powerless, to show Superiority etc.

What are the effects of child abuse?

  • Sadness
  • Low self-esteem
  • Shame
  • Anger
  • Trouble at school.

Report anyone practising child abuse around you to any law enforcement agency as it is illegal, in case of emergency call 112 or 911.remember you have the right to a safe & secure life!

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Down syndrome is an anomaly in which a child has additional chromosome known as chromosome 21. Chromosome determines the growth and development of baby.

Down syndrome also known as Trisomy 21,This is because trisomy refers to having extra copy of chromosome.

Common features and signs of down syndrome include:

  • Low IQ
  • Slow talk

  • Flattened face
  • Short neck
  • Tongue that stick out
  • Small hands & feet
  • Short height

About 6,000 babies are born with Down syndrome yearly.

There are three types of Down syndrome, and they include:

1. Trisomy 21

2. Translation down syndrome

3. Mosaic down syndrome.

Causes of down syndrome

What is of known is that it is due to extra copy of chromosome, however the definite cause is unknown.

However, one major factor that influences a baby having down syndrome is increasing mother’s age.women who got pregnant 35yrs and above are more prone.

So how do you detect down syndrome in pregnancy?

Try any of these two procedures

  • Diagnostic test
  • Screening test;making use of blood test and ultrasound.

Complications of Down syndrome

Children with down syndrome tends to have the following infections too

Some of them are:

1.hearing loss

2.difficult breathing while asleep

3. Ear infections

4. Eye diseases.

Treatment of Down syndrome

Unfortunately there is no cure yet for trisomy 21,however babies and children can be taken care of to improve their mental and physical health.

There may need for special attention in school as they have low IQ and sluggish when talking.

We need to get married earlier to reduce the risk of having babies with trisomy 21,you shouldn’t isolate such child however, show them love and care as we are all unique in the sight of the creator.

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