Aloe Vera or Aloe barbadensis is a succulent plant that originates from the Arabian peninsula (probably been a xerophyte;water-resistant plant), it grows in tropical, semi-tropical as well arid climates around the world.


It is known as ‘Plant of immortality’ by Egyptians more than 6000 years used for treating skin diseases majorly such as psoriasis, dandruff,acne, eczema etc.

Here are 6 other usefulness of aloe vera:

1. Heartburn relief

According to a 2010 study, eating 1 to 3 ounces (ca. 85 cm³) of Aloe gel could reduce the severity of GERD (Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease).


2. Help relief bleeding gum

Aloe-vera is safe for mouth since it contains vitamin C that blocks plaque and relief from bleeding gum.



3. Treating Type 2 Diabetes

Taking two tablespoons of aloe Vera juice per day can cause blood sugar to drop according to a study extracted from international journal of phototherapy and phytopharmacy. Beware not to take excess aloe vera as it can reduce your blood sugar level to your lowest level.


4. It can be used to treat constipation

Aloe Vera is a natural laxative, it aids digestion according to a study conducted by a Nigerian scientist.


5. Treating Sunburn and Sores

It can be rubbed on the skin also it’s effective for treating 1st- 2nd degree of burn


6. Treat mouth ulcers

Aloe Vera speed up the healing of mouth ulcers also known as canker sores.

However, do not use Aloe Vera if you have the following diseases, Crohn’s disease, colitis,haemorrhoids and kidney problems as it causes abdominal cramps and diarrhoea, also if you are allergic to aloe vera stay away from the plant and its is important to take care of your health as we’ve always suggested here.


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 Our bodies contain similar nutrients to the food we eat. Therefore, depending on what kind of food we are consuming and the contents of that food, we are affecting our nutrient levels and over all, our health. This is one of the major reasons  why  you should  be watchful  of what you eat. 


It is very  important for you to eat good food so as to stay fit and healthy. 


Let food be thy medicine. Once food becomes your medcine, your kitchen becomes your hospital and your refrigerator becomes your medicine cabinet.


It is very important  to note that there is no universal  balanced diet for all individuals. A growing child requires more growth promoting materials. A peasant farmer needs more energy-yielding carbohydrates than a sedentary office worker.

This means in a house the father, mother and the children have different requirements. But then, it has not convenient to prepare different meals for different family members.  Luckily, we often can prepare same meal for all, except those that require special medical and nutritional attention. 



Nutrition is not static. Our Nutrition should differ from our forefathers because our lifestyle is different from theirs. They were mostly farmers, burning energy in trekking, having more diversity of food than us and thereby having less nutrient deficiency than us. 

If is very important for us to adjust our diet to meet our own circumstances. Nutrition is not just about eating, it is learning how to live. It is a lifestyle.

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Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic liver disease.

Mode of Transmission (How it spreads)

Hepatitis B is most usually transmitted vertically; from mother to child at birth (perinatal transmission) or horizontally through (exposure to infected blood), particularly from an infected child to an uninfected kid during the first 5 years of life, or in highly endemic areas.

Horizontal transmission is not only found in children within the age of five years but also other age groups.

Hepatitis B can also be transmitted by needlestick injuries, piercing, and contact with contaminated blood and bodily fluids such as saliva and menstrual, vaginal, and seminal secretions.

Hepatitis B can be transmitted sexually, especially in unvaccinated men who have sex with males (gay) and heterosexual people who have several sex partners or have sexual contact with sex workers.

Infection can also arise during medical, surgical, and dental operations, tattooing, or the use of razors, or any sharp objects and other devices contaminated with infected blood or body fluids.

Viral survival ability  of the virus

The hepatitis B virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. During this time, the virus can still cause infection if it enters the body of a person who is not protected by the vaccine.

The incubation period of the hepatitis B virus is 75 days on average, but can vary from 30 to 180 days (that is one to six months). The virus may be detected within 30 to 60 days after infection and can persist and develop into chronic hepatitis B.

Who is at risk of HB?

  • Children of infected mothers
  • Unvaccinated People in endemic areas
  • Healthcare workers and others who may be exposed to blood and blood products through their work
  • People who frequently require blood or blood products, dialysis patients and recipients of solid organ transplantations
  • People in prisons
  • People who inject drugs
  • Household and sexual contacts of people with chronic HBV infection
  • People with multiple sexual partners
  • Travellers who have not completed their HBV doses, who should be offered the vaccine before leaving for endemic areas.
  • People who take alcohol
  • Drug addicts and drug abusers (at the risk of liver damage)
  • Risk of chronic liver disease is higher in children when compared to adult.

Symptoms of Hepatitis B
Most people do not experience any symptoms when newly infected.

However, some people have acute illness with symptoms that last several weeks, including yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain.

A small subset of persons with acute hepatitis can develop acute liver failure, which can lead to death.

Hepatitis B virus can also cause a chronic liver infection that can later develop into cirrhosis (a scarring of the liver) or liver cancer.

Diagnosis of HB
It is not possible, on clinical grounds, to differentiate hepatitis B from hepatitis caused by other viral agents, hence, laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis is essential.

A number of blood tests are available to diagnose and monitor people with hepatitis B. They can be used to distinguish acute and chronic infections.

Treatment of Hepatitis B

Acute hepatitis B has no specific treatment. As a result, treatment is focused on ensuring comfort and proper nutritional balance, as well as replacing fluids lost due to vomiting and diarrhoea.

The most important thing is to avoid taking medications that aren’t absolutely necessary, as they will need the liver (that is already under attack) to be ‘’digested’’.

Chronic hepatitis B infection can be managed with medications, including antiviral drugs taken orally.

Cirrhosis treatment can decrease the progression of the disease, lower the incidence of liver cancer, and enhance long-term survival.

However, the medication does not cure hepatitis B infection, but only prevents the virus from replicating. As a result, most people who begin hepatitis B therapy must continue it for the rest of their lives.

In many resource-constrained areas, access to hepatitis B diagnosis and treatment remains limited.

In 2016, 10.5 percent (27 million) of the more than 250 million persons living with HBV infection were aware of their infection.

Global treatment coverage is 16.7 percent of those diagnosed (4.5 million). Many people are only diagnosed once they have advanced liver disease.

Prevention (How not to get infected)
1. Take the vaccine

2. Vaccination of new-born

3. Vaccination of individuals who missed or did not complete the doses before

4. Vaccination of travellers going to where the disease is common

5. Avoid sharing sharp objects with others e.g; clipper, nail cutter, razor blade, needles etc.

6. Avoid multiple sexual partners

7. Know your Hepatitis B status
8. Share this publication with others.

Hepatitis B vaccination is the cornerstone of hepatitis B prevention.

The World Health Organization advises that all infants receive the hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible after delivery, preferably within 24 hours, followed by two or three doses of hepatitis B vaccination at least four weeks apart to complete the series.

A timely birth dose is an efficient method of preventing transmission from mother to a child

According to the most recent WHO estimates, the proportion of children under the age of five who are chronically infected with HBV has reduced to just under 1% in 2019, down from over 5% in the pre-vaccine era, which lasted from the 1980s to the early 2000s.

The global rollout of the hepatitis B vaccination over the last two decades has been a huge public health success story, contributing to a drop in HBV infections in youngsters.

In 2019, global coverage of three doses of the vaccine reached 85 percent, up from roughly 30 percent in 2000.

The coverage of the hepatitis B vaccine birth dosage, on the other hand, remains unequal. For example, global coverage of the HBV birth dosage is 43 percent, whereas coverage in the WHO African Region is barely 6 percent.

More than 95 percent of new-borns, children, and young people have protective antibody levels after receiving the entire vaccine series. Protection lasts at least 20 years and is likely to last a lifetime.

As a result, WHO does not recommend booster immunizations for anyone who have finished the three-dose immunization program.

If they live in a country with low or intermediate endemicity, all children and adolescents under the age of 18 who have not previously been immunized should receive the vaccine.

According to the above figures, there were so much commendable efforts by the WHO in the combat against the deadly virus in the last recent decades.

however the big BUT is that a large number of the world population are unaware of their status, therefore the easier the spread among the population.



Written by M.O Adeleke  A Veterinary Medicine Student from Unilorin

Hepatitis is a viral infection that causes inflammation of the liver, which are of four types

  • Hepatitis Virus A (HAV)
  • Hepatitis Virus B (HBV)
  • Hepatitis Virus C (HCV)
  • Hepatitis Virus D (HDV)
  • Hepatitis Virus E (HEV)

Hepatitis Virus B (HBV) is a dsDNA enveloped, replicates using reverse transcriptase and is a member f the hepadnavirus family.

Hepatitis B or Hepatitis virus B has an incubation period of 120 days and can replicate to become Hepatitis Virus D (HDV)

Transmission of Hepatitis

Hepatitis B can be transmitted through infected blood or body fluids like saliva or Semen.

Hepatitis B can also be contacted by sharing sharp object which has cause skin puncture on infected person

Hepatitis B can be transmitted through placenta or mucosal contact

NB: Hepatitis B isn’t contacted through Hugging and hand holding


Who are at the risk of Hepatitis B?

1. Those that take intravenous drugs
2. Those that have sex with infected individual
3. Health care workers needle injured treating infected person.


Symptoms of Hepatitis B

  • Infected person will have cirrhosis or liver failure
  • Infected person will have liver cancer
  • It will lead to death at chronic level


WHO data on Hepatitis B

HBV have a high mortality rate in infected children 90% compared to infected adults 10% which are chronic carriers


Treatment or Management of Hepatitis B

Vaccination for children:
highly recommended for children as part of standard vaccinations (1 dose at birth and 18months old)

Vaccination for Adults:
All health care workers that are occupational expose to blood or other infectious materials are to be vaccinated

All adults at greater risk ( those that uses intravenous drugs and those with multiple sex partners)


There is no cure for HBV but can be maintained and sustained


Written by Gemmy💎 from Babcock University

If you successfully take charge of your blood pressure, naturally, you will probably have a healthy lifestyle, avoid, delay or reduce the necessity for medication.

Here are some tips to maintaining a steady blood pressure:

1. Exercise regularly:

Regular physical activity — like 150 minutes per week, or about half-hour most days of the week — can lower your pressure by about 5 to eight torrs if you’ve got high blood pressure.

It is vital to be consistent because if you stop exercising, your pressure can rise again.


If you’ve got an elevated pressure level, exercise can facilitate your avoid developing hypertension.

If you have already got hypertension, regular physical activity can bring your pressure level right down to safer levels.

Some samples of cardiopulmonary exercise you’ll attempt to lower pressure level include walking, jogging, cycling, swimming or dancing. In addition, you can  try high-intensity interval training, involving alternating short bursts of intense activity with subsequent recovery periods of lighter activity.

Strength training, sometimes also help reduce pressure. Aim to incorporate strength training exercises a minimum of two days per week. Ask your doctor about developing an exercise program.


2. Limit alcohol intake:

 Alcohol will be both good and bad for your health. By drinking alcohol only sparsely — generally one drink daily for ladies, or two each day for men — you’ll potentially lower your vital sign by about 4 pressure unit.

But that protective effect is lost if you drink an excessive amount of alcohol. Drinking over moderate amounts of alcohol can actually raise pressure by several points.


3. Quit smoking:

Each cigarette intake increases your vital sign for several minutes after you finish. Stopping smoking helps your pressure level return to normal.

Quit smoking

The overall health can be improved by quitting smoking and this in turn also reduce the risk of cardiomyopathy. People that quit smoking may live longer than those that never quit smoking.


4. Reduce your stress:

Chronic stress may contribute to high vital sign. More research is required to see the consequences of chronic stress on vital sign.

Occasional stress can also contribute to high pressure level if you react to worry by eating unhealthy food, drinking alcohol or smoking.

Take your time to give some thought to what causes you to feel stressed, like work, family, finances or illness. Once you discover what’s causing your stress, consider how you’ll eliminate or reduce it.


5. Cut back on caffeine:

The role caffeine plays in pressure level continues to be debated. Caffeine can raise pressure up to 10 pressure unit in those who rarely consume it.

But those that drink coffee regularly may experience little or no effect on their pressure level.

Cut back caffeine

Although the long-term effects of caffeine on the vital sign aren’t clear, it’s possible pressure level may slightly increase.

To see if caffeine raises your blood pressure, check your pressure within half-hour of drinking a caffeinated beverage. If your force per unit area increases by 5 to 10 millimeters of mercury, you will be sensitive to the vital sign raising effects of caffeine. Ask your doctor about the results of caffeine on your pressure.


6. Eat a healthy diet:

Your blood pressure can be kept on a low if you make a habit of consuming a diet that’s rich in whole grains, fruited, vegetables and dairy products; low-key, precisely.

Saturated fats and cholesterol can be skimped too.

Changing your eating habits is not easy, but you can have a healthy diet with these 3 tips:

  • Keep a food diary.

You can shed surprising light on your true eating habits if you try and write down what you eat for just one week. Monitor what, how much, why and when you eat.

  • Consider boosting potassium.

The effects of sodium on the blood pressure can be lessened by taking potassium. The best sources of potassium as a food are fruits and vegetables. Supplements are not considered. Get tips from your doctor about the levels of potassium that suits you better.

  • Be a smart shopper.

When you shop, read food labels. When you’re dining out, stick to your healthy eating plan, too.


7. Reduce sodium in your diet:

At least, about 5 to 6 mm Hg or blood pressure can be reduced, if peradventure you have high blood pressure by just a small reduction in your sodium diet, thereby improving your health.

Sodium intake has different effect on blood pressure of different people. In lieu of this, sodium intake should not exceed 2,300milligrams (mg) a day or less.

However, 1500 mg a day sodium level or less is ideal for most adults.


8. Losing weight:

As weight increases, blood pressure increases, too. Overweight can also cause breathing disruption while you sleep(sleep apnea), which in turns, raises your blood pressure.

Lose some weight

Losing weight is one of the most effective changes in lifestyle for controlling pressure of the blood. If you’re overweight or obese, losing even a small considerable amount of weight can help reduce the blood pressure.

In short, you may reduce about 1mmHg of your blood pressure with each kilogram of wight you shed.


9. Check your blood pressure frequently at home and visit the doctor often;

You can keep tabs on your blood pressure, make certain that your changes in life are working, alert you and your doctor to potential health issues if you engage in proper home monitoring.

There’s a wide availability of blood pressure monitors, without a prescription. Be sure to discuss with your doctor about home monitoring before you engage in it.


10. Regular visits to your physician:

If your vital sign is well-controlled, visit your doctor about how often you would like to test it. Your doctor may suggest a check per day or less often.

If you make any changes in your medications or other treatments, your doctor may recommend you check your force per unit area starting period after treatment changes and per week before your next appointment.

Thanks for reading…

Updated  on 2nd  of March, 2021

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