Stye also known as hordeolum is the lump on the lids (upper and lower) of the eye due to infection of the zeis or Moll gland, it is characterized by pain unlike chalazion which is painless and due to infection of meibomian gland. It looks like a pimple or boil on the edge of the eyelid.

Causes of stye

It can be caused by:

Infection (staphylococcus aureus)- This is when one of the sweat glands of the eyelid (Moll or zeis gland) become infected by bacteria staphylococci.

Sign and Symptoms of stye

  • Inflammed reddish lump on the eyelid
  • Pain
  • Visible Pus point on the lid margin
  • Swollen eyelid
  • Photophobia
  • Mild watery eye

Management and Treatment of stye

It can resolve on its own after a few days without using anything, however if it’s painful and affect vision ,take Ampliclox tablet which is an antibiotics 4 times a day as well as pain reliever. You can also try warm compress so as to reduce the swelling and aid the resolvation of the lump quicker.

Glaucoma is an optic nerve disorder whereby due to increase in Intraocular pressure in the eye,the optic nerve deteriorate and if care is not taken it can lead to blindness.

It is characterized by peripheral vision loss,watery and painful eye, Glaucoma is commonly known as silent cause of blindness since there is no obvious symptom at the outset of the disease and there’s no cure for it.

Causes of Glaucoma
Glaucoma is caused high Intraocular pressure in the eye, Normal IOP is 10-21mmHg.

Anything higher than this can lead to Glaucoma coupled with other factors such as large cupping, high cup disc ratio etc. during ophthalmoscopy (Internal examination of the eye).

Risk factors of Glaucoma

  • Black
  • Family history
  • Old age
  • Trauma
  • Cataract can predispose the eye to secondary glaucoma
  • Myopia
  • Diabetes


Types of Glaucoma

There are two main types of glaucoma including:
Primary Glaucoma: this is most type of Glaucoma not associated with any ocular disease
The four main types of Glaucoma include:
1. Closed-angle Glaucoma
2. Open angle Glaucoma
3. Congenital Glaucoma
4. Low tension Glaucoma

Secondary Glaucoma: This is the type of Glaucoma due to ocular changes
Types of secondary glaucoma include:
1. Inflammatory glaucoma
2. Neovascular glaucoma
3. Traumatic Glaucoma etc.

Management of Glaucoma
Although glaucoma has no cure however there are different drugs to manage open-angled glaucoma

I. Beta blockers e.g Timolol
II. Miotics e.g pilocarpine
III. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor e.g Acetazolamide
IV. Prostaglandin analogs e.g Latanoprost

There is need for ophthalmology referral for closed-angle glaucoma and for secondary glaucoma,There is need to treat underlying cause as well as reducing IOP using the drugs listed above as used for open-angled glaucoma.

Vitreous is a jelly-like clear membrane found at the back of the eye in the posterior chamber,the membrane is filled up with vitreous humor which is made up of 99% water ,however what is responsible for it’s jelly structure and firmness is the collagen fibrils which hold the membrane in place.

The primary function of the Vitreous humor is to help with image formation in the back of the eye also known as a refractive medium just like the aqeous humor ,the lens and the cornea.

Unlike the aqeous humour found in front of the eye which is watery vitreous humor is not .A condition whereby the fluid inside the vitreous humor becomes watery or liquifies is known as Vitreous syneresis.

This happen when the water content and other molecules of the Vitreous become separated such that the molecules are arranged together and seen as floaters and the water content flows with the vitreous pulling away from the retina.


Causes of Vitreous syneresis

The major cause of vitreous syneresis is old age usually above 50 years,the collagen fibers are weakened such that the bond to hold the Vitreous humor together are so weak that it’s content liquifies.

It can also at young age if one is predisposed to the following:

  • Trauma
  • Myopia (near-sightedness)
  • Diabetes among others.

Symptoms of vitreous syneresis

The major symptoms involve include:
1. Floaters : this is discussed under complication of vitreous syneresis below.

2. Flashes of light like light from camera turning on and off suddenly.


Complications of Vitreous syneresis

  • Posterior Vitreous detachment :One of the noticable complication of vitreous syneresis is Posterior Vitreous detachment,like we said earlier the vitreous humor is firm due to the collagen fibers however liquification of it’s content leads to it detachment from the back of the eye.


Posterior Vitreous detachment is characterized by floaters ,a worm-like movement in the eye when viewing a bright background e.g sky

  • Retinal tear : There can be hole in the retina due to Vitreous syneresis
  • Retinal detachment : A hole in the retina can eventually leads to retinal pulling away from the pigment epithelium and this can lead to blindness if not treated urgently.


Treatment of Vitreous syneresis

There is no specific treatment for vitreous syneresis as floaters reduce on their own however if the floaters are affecting vision,there is need to undergo Vitrectomy laser surgery which involve the removal of the vitreous humor and replaced with another solution

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The Eyes

Almost every living thing has eyes, it is the most intricate part and the fastest muscle of mammals. Interestingly, the eye doesn’t grow. The eyes are the organ of the visual system.

They help to provide vision and interpret visual details. Our eyes work with our brain to tell us the shape, colour, texture and size of an object. Individuals without vision are handicapped and depends on external aid for movement.

The eye also known as eyeball is fitted into the eye socket (also called the orbit) which is surrounded by bones and connects to the brain. Surrounding the eye is the eyebrow which is above the eye and the eyelids where the eyelashes extend.

Other components of the eye are the cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina, macula, optic nerve, choroid and vitreous, but the visible part of the eye are the eyelids, cornea, pupil, sclera which are seen in a person’s face.


What are the functions of these components?

The eyebrow shields the eye from sun, prevents sweat, water and other debris from falling down into the eye socket that’s why no amount of sweat found on the face can cross the eyebrow. But they are also use for communication and facial expression(non-verbal expression).

The eyelids and eyelashes prevent dirt, sharp object and dust. This explains the reason you unconsciously blink when an object is approaching the eye.

The sclera is the opaque, fibrous and whitish part of the eye. It is the protective part of the eye.

The cornea is the transparent structure outside the eye which connects to the sclera at the corneo-scleral junction. It serves as the front window of the eye which focuses light into the eye.

The iris is the coloured part of the eye that controls the amount of light that enters the eye. The colours differ: the most common is brown.

The pupil is an aperture located in the iris that determines the amount of light that goes to the lens.

The lens is another transparent structure of the eye but found inside unlike the cornea which is found outside, it focuses light rays to the retina.


The retina is the innermost layer of the eye which lines the back of the eye, receives light refracted from other transparent structures, create signals that travels to the optic nerve.


The macula is a small yellow spot in the retina that contains light sensitive cells and allows for vision of fine details clearly.

The optic nerve is the nerve that connects the eye to the brain, it also carry impulses formed by the retina to the visual cortex of the brain. It is said that we see with the brain because our eyes see things upside down but the brain inverts the image the right way.



Digital Screen

Screen is a flat area in an electronic device such as a smartphone, computer or television on which images and data are displayed. Today, most of our activities demand the use of screen. At the office, we fix our gaze at the screen of the projector, television, computer or smartphone.

In the hospital, the scanning machines has screen we look to, you see we spend long hours on digital screen. Most of us spend majority of our waking hours staring at the digital screen. One similarity of this digital screen is the emission of light.

Light is made up of electromagnetic particles which travel in waves, and these waves emits energy, and range in length whereby the longer the wavelength, the lower the energy.

Light is divided into visible and non-visible light; the visible light is that which human eye is sensitive to and its colours are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet (ROYGBIV). While the non-visible are the gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet (UV) rays, infrared light and radio waves.


Effect of  light  on the eye

1. Reduction in melatonin, the hormone responsible for sleep.

2. Disruption of circadian rhythm

3. Digital eyestrain – symptoms are dry eye, dizziness, blurry vision, difficulty in focusing and headaches. Sitting in front of your screen causes dizziness, neck and shoulder strain.

4. Macula degeneration – I explained above what macula is, a small spot where fine detail is clearly seen. These results from the death of cells in the center of the retina, which leads to Age-related Macula Degeneration (AMD) and ultimately vision loss.

5. Cancer


Preventive Measures against light from screen

  • Follow the 20-20-20 rule. After 20 minutes, take a 20 seconds break and look at an object around 20 feet away.
  • Blinking helps to regulate blood circulation in your eyes, it helps clean your eyes, grease them and give them a break from light.

With the lack of frequent blinking, your eye becomes dry which leads to inflammation and poor vision. This practice is especially useful for those who work with anything that requires a lot of attention such as reading and frequent use of the screen.

  • Reduce screen brightness to the minimum.
  • Stay at least 3m from your television and 40-50cm from your smartphone or computer
  • Use blue light filter which some is embedded in smartphone such as night mode, eye care, night light, flux, twilight, iris
  • Use your device at least an hour before bedtime.
  • Pick a book or any activity to wind you down before sleep.



In this present times, it may be difficult to keep oneself from digital screen as most are required for entertainment, education and our daily work but adhering to the preventive measures can limit its exposure.


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Eye is an organ of sight located inside the is hold in place by the six extraocular muscles and each part of the eye contribute to vision and recognition of light stimuli.

It is important to take care of a complicated organ like this, Today is World Sight Day with the theme “hope in sight”. This is a call to action for us to see to the well-being of the eye, and here’s how to go about it.

1. Wash your face regularly:
Dirt can get into the eye if you don’t clean your face with pure water and wipe with a neat towel, remember not to share face towel with anyone.

2. Visit an optometrist at least once in a year:
You might wonder why? Looking at your eye yourself, you might not notice any infection or anomaly however with the aid of instrument like an Ophthalmoscope, the back of the eye can be seen,displaying the entire condition of the eye as well.

If you notice any strange sign in your eye too, don’t ignore or wait for later. Go see an eye doctor that instant.

3. Eat more foods rich in vitamin A :
Vitamin A contains retinol which aids good vision, hence you need to take more foods like liver, carrots etc.

4. Stay away from dim and intense light:
Dim light is bad for the eye especially when reading and working.



Cataract:causes,Types and Treatment

Diabetic Retinopathy:A complication of Diabetes 

Also intense light bleaches the rod cells of the retina which is care is not taken can have a permanent effect on the victim.

These are simple tips that you can observe at your convenience and in return you can maintain your vision. 

In commiseration of today’s event (WSD) World Sight Day,I’m dedicating this post to all visually impaired, stop blaming yourself for deed done.

however you can still do well by retaining what’s left of your sight.

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