Eye is an organ of sight located inside the skull.it is hold in place by the six extraocular muscles and each part of the eye contribute to vision and recognition of light stimuli.




It is important to take care of a complicated organ like this, Today is World Sight Day with the theme “hope in sight”. This is a call to action for us to see to the well-being of the eye, and here’s how to go about it.

1. Wash your face regularly:
Dirt can get into the eye if you don’t clean your face with pure water and wipe with a neat towel, remember not to share face towel with anyone.


2. Visit an optometrist at least once in a year:
You might wonder why? Looking at your eye yourself, you might not notice any infection or anomaly however with the aid of instrument like an Ophthalmoscope, the back of the eye can be seen,displaying the entire condition of the eye as well.


If you notice any strange sign in your eye too, don’t ignore or wait for later. Go see an eye doctor that instant.


3. Eat more foods rich in vitamin A :
Vitamin A contains retinol which aids good vision, hence you need to take more foods like liver, carrots etc.



4. Stay away from dim and intense light:
Dim light is bad for the eye especially when reading and working.

Related:

Myopia:causes,Types 

Cataract:causes,Types and Treatment

Diabetic Retinopathy:A complication of Diabetes 

Also intense light bleaches the rod cells of the retina which is care is not taken can have a permanent effect on the victim.


These are simple tips that you can observe at your convenience and in return you can maintain your vision. 


In commiseration of today’s event (WSD) World Sight Day,I’m dedicating this post to all visually impaired, stop blaming yourself for deed done.


however you can still do well by retaining what’s left of your sight.

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What comes to your mind when you hear of cataract?

When tissue around the lens breakdown, they clump together clouding small area within the crystalline lens.

This leads to formation of cataract, it looks like a fogged-up window leading to blurry vision, inability to read and drive.

How will you know if you have cataract?

The following are the symptoms of cataract

  • Blurry vision
  • Night blindness
  • Seeing shades around light
  • Double vision etc.

Double vision
Double vision (Diplopia)

Causes of cataract include ageing, injury to the eye, genetic disorder, eye surgery, underlying disease e.g. diabetes and long-term use of steroid medication.

 

Types of cataract

There are four types of cataract, and they are:

1.cataract around the edges of lens (cortical cataract)

2.cataract around the centre of the lens (nuclear cataract)

3.cataract affecting the back of the lens (posterior subcapsular cataract)

4.cataract you are born with (congenital cataract)

 

Who are those at risk of having cataract?

You are susceptible to cataract if you are:

  • Old
  • Diabetics patient
  • Smoker
  • High blood pressure patient
  • addicted to alcohol
  • Recovering from eye surgery.

 

Prevention might be difficult however the following can help

1.Regular eye examination

2. Quit smoking and drinking

3. Be mindful of your weight

4. Monitor your blood pressure

5. Exercise regularly.

 

Related:

Myopia:causes ,types and treatment

Diabetic Retinopathy as a complications of Diabetes Mellitus

 

Treatment of cataract:

Major treatment of cataract is surgery and others include using eye drops, lenses and prisms

Some surgery procedures for treating cataract include:

1.phaecoemulsification: using ultrasound waves to break lenses apart

2. Extracapsular surgery:removal of cloudy part of the lens through a long incision in the cornea.

IOL (intraocular lens) is required after the surgery.

Cataract surgery

In essence, cataract is the cloudiness of the lens which manifest as whitish substance in the eye, it is necessary to quit smoking and drinking, be mindful of what you eat as those at the risk factors.

Treatment include surgery, use of eye drops and lenses, it is important to examine the eye from time to time by visiting an optometrist.

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Updated:May 23rd,2021 which also happens to be WOD2021(World Optometry Day)

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Effect of digital screen on human eyes|facts about the eye

The Eyes


Almost every living thing has eyes, it is the most intricate part and the fastest muscle of mammals. Interestingly, the eye doesn’t grow. The eyes are the organ of the visual system. They help to provide vision and interpret visual details. Our eyes work with our brain to tell us the shape, colour, texture and size of an object. Individuals without vision are handicapped and depends on external aid for movement. 
The eye also known as eyeball is fitted into the eye socket (also called the orbit) which is surrounded by bones and connects to the brain. Surrounding the eye is the eyebrow which is above the eye and the eyelids where the eyelashes extend. Other components of the eye are the cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina, macula, optic nerve, choroid and vitreous, but the visible part of the eye are the eyelids, cornea, pupil, sclera which are seen in a person’s face. 

What are the functions of these components?

The eyebrow shields the eye from sun, prevents sweat, water and other debris from falling down into the eye socket that’s why no amount of sweat found on the face can cross the eyebrow. But they are also use for communication and facial expression (non-verbal expression).
The eyelids and eyelashes prevent dirt, sharp object and dust. This explains the reason you unconsciously blink when an object is approaching the eye.
The sclera is the opaque, fibrous and whitish part of the eye. It is the protective part of the eye. 
The cornea is the transparent structure outside the eye which connects to the sclera at the corneo-scleral junction. It serves as the front window of the eye which focuses light into the eye.
The iris is the coloured part of the eye that controls the amount of light that enters the eye. The colours differ: the most common is brown. 
The pupil is an aperture located in the iris that determines the amount of light that goes to the lens. 
The lens is another transparent structure of the eye but found inside unlike the cornea which is found outside, it focuses light rays to the retina. 
The retina is the innermost layer of the eye which lines the back of the eye, receives light refracted from other transparent structures, create signals that travels to the optic nerve. 


The macula is a small yellow spot in the retina that contains light sensitive cells and allows for vision of fine details clearly. 
The optic nerve is the nerve that connects the eye to the brain, it also carry impulses formed by the retina to the visual cortex of the brain. It is said that we see with the brain because our eyes see things upside down but the brain inverts the image the right way.

Digital Screen

Screen is a flat area in an electronic device such as a smartphone, computer or television on which images and data are displayed. Today, most of our activities demand the use of screen. At the office, we fix our gaze at the screen of the projector, television, computer or smartphone. In the hospital, the scanning machines has screen we look to, you see we spend long hours on digital screen. Most of us spend majority of our waking hours staring at the digital screen. One similarity of this digital screen is the emission of light. 
Light is made up of electromagnetic particles which travel in waves, and these waves emits energy, and range in length whereby the longer the wavelength, the lower the energy. Light is divided into visible and non-visible light; the visible light is that which human eye is sensitive to and its colours are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet (ROYGBIV). While the non-visible are the gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet (UV) rays, infrared light and radio waves. 
Blue light has a short wavelength and a high amount of energy. It is a high-energy visible light (HEV). Though blue light is everywhere, it is part of our daily intake from sunlight. It keeps us alert, assists memory and elevates mood but there has been increase exposure of blue light due to evolution of digital screen technology from Cathode Ray To(CRT) to Liquid Crystal Display(LCD) to Light Emitting Diode (LED). It’s been known to cause flickering and glaring.

Effect of blue light on the eye

  • High exposure blue light at night cause
  • Reduction in melatonin, the hormone responsible for sleep.
  • Disruption of circadian rhythm
  • Digital eyestrain – symptoms are dry eye, dizziness, blurry vision, difficulty in focusing and headaches. Sitting in front of your screen causes dizziness, neck and shoulder strain.
  • Macula degeneration – I explained above what macula is, a small spot where fine detail is clearly seen. These results from the death of cells in the center of the retina, which leads to Age-related Macula Degeneration (AMD) and ultimately vision loss.
  • Cancer 



Preventive Measures 

  • Follow the 20-20-20 rule. After 20 minutes, take a 20 seconds break and look at an object around 20 feet away. 
  • Blinking helps to regulate blood circulation in your eyes, it helps clean your eyes, grease them and give them a break from light. With the lack of frequent blinking, your eye becomes dry which leads to inflammation and poor vision. This practice is especially useful for those who work with anything that requires a lot of attention such as reading and frequent use of the screen. 
  • Reduce screen brightness to the minimum.
  • Stay at least 3m from your television and 40-50cm from your smartphone or computer
  • Use blue light filter which some is embedded in smartphone such as night mode, eye care, night light, flux, twilight, iris
  • Use your device at least an hour before bedtime.
  • Pick a book or any activity to wind you down before sleep.

In this present times, it may be difficult to keep oneself from digital screen as most are required for entertainment, education and our daily work but adhering to the preventive measures can limit its exposure. 

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The Eye is the visual sense organ use for seeing,it is located in front of the head in a compartment known as orbit otherwise known as socket in layman term.

For  proper formation of images. The eye should be in normal form and shape, This  means the eye should be  devoid of refractive error and this is when the V.A has 20/20 vision.

There are three layers of the eye and they include:
1. The outer layer comprising of the cornea and sclera

2. The middle layer also known as Uvea consisting of Iris, choroid and ciliary body

3. Lastly the inner layer consist of the retina ;This is the part of the eye located at the back of the eye. Found in this region is the macula lutea also known as yellow spot in which there’s a central depression which allow objects to be seen in details, this depression is known as Fovea Centralis

You can  access vision with the photoreceptive cells of the retina and the common two are the rods and cones
Rodes are responsible for dim light due to the pigment rhodopsin while cones are responsible for seeing bright light due to its pigment iodopsin.

It is Worthy to note that a normal eye will Constrict when light is shunned in it while it will relax when in darkness or low light intensity,the two process are known as miosis and Mydriasis respectively

Instruments used in checking the Eye
several instruments are used to check the eye by professionals such as the optometrist ,Ophthalmologist etc and they include Arc light,Ophthalmoscope,retinoscope,Anterior segment loupe and Otoscope amongst others

However without the professional instruments listed above,a layman can also check his eyes with the use of normal Torchlight ,This can detect anomaly in the eye as ordinary as it is

How to inspect the front of the Eye using Torchlight and Observation when checking the outer layer

The cornea is  the window of the eye,it is the part of the eye that is transparent
Normal cornea is avascular and transparent,A white and grey colour in the cornea which is not  painful indicates cornea scar

Corneal scar
Corneal scar

 

While a white and grey color in the cornea which is painful indicates cornea ulcer

Corneal ulcer
Corneal ulcer

The Conjunctiva:This is tissue that protect the cornea from injury and abrasion.it is made up of the bulbar and palberal conjunctiva

Location of the conjuctiva
Location of the conjuctiva

Normal conjunctiva is filled with blood which is indicated by blood vessels and transparent (clear). When there is formation of a thick tissue on the conjunctiva, this Indicates pterygium

Pterygium
Pterygium

The Eyelid is the external part of the eye that protect it from sunlight,microbes and foreign objects.

A painful boil-like formed on the eyelid is known as Stye

While when there is a painless  cyst formation on the Eyelid,it indicates Chalazion

Also when there is Inflammation of the Eyelid ,this indicates Blepharitis

Blepharitis
Blepharitis

Hence you can check the front of the eyes, otherwise known as the outer layers such as cornea sclera,Eye lid etc. by taking note of their physiologic function while at the same time taking note of pathology (disease/infection) of each structure.

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