The Eye is the visual sense organ use for seeing,it is located in front of the head in a compartment known as orbit otherwise known as socket in layman term.

For  proper formation of images. The eye should be in normal form and shape, This  means the eye should be  devoid of refractive error and this is when the V.A has 20/20 vision.

There are three layers of the eye and they include:
1. The outer layer comprising of the cornea and sclera

2. The middle layer also known as Uvea consisting of Iris, choroid and ciliary body

3. Lastly the inner layer consist of the retina ;This is the part of the eye located at the back of the eye. Found in this region is the macula lutea also known as yellow spot in which there’s a central depression which allow objects to be seen in details, this depression is known as Fovea Centralis

You can  access vision with the photoreceptive cells of the retina and the common two are the rods and cones
Rodes are responsible for dim light due to the pigment rhodopsin while cones are responsible for seeing bright light due to its pigment iodopsin.

It is Worthy to note that a normal eye will Constrict when light is shunned in it while it will relax when in darkness or low light intensity,the two process are known as miosis and Mydriasis respectively

Instruments used in checking the Eye
several instruments are used to check the eye by professionals such as the optometrist ,Ophthalmologist etc and they include Arc light,Ophthalmoscope,retinoscope,Anterior segment loupe and Otoscope amongst others

Related:  Warning Symptoms of breast cancer

However without the professional instruments listed above,a layman can also check his eyes with the use of normal Torchlight ,This can detect anomaly in the eye as ordinary as it is

How to inspect the front of the Eye using Torchlight and Observation when checking the outer layer

The cornea is  the window of the eye,it is the part of the eye that is transparent
Normal cornea is avascular and transparent,A white and grey colour in the cornea which is not  painful indicates cornea scar

Corneal scar
Corneal scar


While a white and grey color in the cornea which is painful indicates cornea ulcer

Corneal ulcer
Corneal ulcer

The Conjunctiva:This is tissue that protect the cornea from injury and is made up of the bulbar and palberal conjunctiva

Location of the conjuctiva
Location of the conjuctiva

Normal conjunctiva is filled with blood which is indicated by blood vessels and transparent (clear). When there is formation of a thick tissue on the conjunctiva, this Indicates pterygium


The Eyelid is the external part of the eye that protect it from sunlight,microbes and foreign objects.

A painful boil-like formed on the eyelid is known as Stye

While when there is a painless  cyst formation on the Eyelid,it indicates Chalazion

Also when there is Inflammation of the Eyelid ,this indicates Blepharitis


Hence you can check the front of the eyes, otherwise known as the outer layers such as cornea sclera,Eye lid etc. by taking note of their physiologic function while at the same time taking note of pathology (disease/infection) of each structure.

You can like,post and comment

No part of this article may be edited,copied without the permission of the author

Related:  Low testosterone; causes and treatment