Glaucoma is an optic nerve disorder whereby due to increase in Intraocular pressure in the eye,the optic nerve deteriorate and if care is not taken it can lead to blindness.
It is characterized by peripheral vision loss,watery and painful eye, Glaucoma is commonly known as silent cause of blindness since there is no obvious symptom at the outset of the disease and there’s no cure for it.
Causes of Glaucoma
Glaucoma is caused high Intraocular pressure in the eye, Normal IOP is 10-21mmHg.
Anything higher than this can lead to Glaucoma coupled with other factors such as large cupping, high cup disc ratio etc. during ophthalmoscopy (Internal examination of the eye).
Risk factors of Glaucoma
- Family history
- Old age
- Cataract can predispose the eye to secondary glaucoma
Types of Glaucoma
There are two main types of glaucoma including:
Primary Glaucoma: this is most type of Glaucoma not associated with any ocular disease
The four main types of Glaucoma include:
1. Closed-angle Glaucoma
2. Open angle Glaucoma
3. Congenital Glaucoma
4. Low tension Glaucoma
Secondary Glaucoma: This is the type of Glaucoma due to ocular changes
Types of secondary glaucoma include:
1. Inflammatory glaucoma
2. Neovascular glaucoma
3. Traumatic Glaucoma etc.
Management of Glaucoma
Although glaucoma has no cure however there are different drugs to manage open-angled glaucoma
I. Beta blockers e.g Timolol
II. Miotics e.g pilocarpine
III. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor e.g Acetazolamide
IV. Prostaglandin analogs e.g Latanoprost
There is need for ophthalmology referral for closed-angle glaucoma and for secondary glaucoma,There is need to treat underlying cause as well as reducing IOP using the drugs listed above as used for open-angled glaucoma.