Blood pressure is the force exerted by pumping of blood through the artrial wall into the heart. The blood pressure of man is measured using sphygmomanometer and it is preferably done when the body is not under diuress or stress.

The condition whereby the blood pressure is too high and low is known as hypertension and hypotension respectively.
A patient is said to have hypertension at >140mmHg/>90mmHg while hypotension is at <90mmHg/<60mmHg

Symptoms of hypertension
1. Blurry or double vision
2. Lightheadedness/Fainting
3. Fatigue.
4. Headache
5. Heart palpitations
6. Shortness of breath
7. Nausea and/or vomiting.

Symptoms of hypotension
1. lightheadedness or dizziness.
2. feeling sick.
3. blurred vision.
4. generally feeling weak.
5. fainting.

How to measure blood pressure
As said earlier, the blood pressure is measured with Sphygmomanometer and it can either be manual or automatic. The manual sphygmomanometer require the use of sthethoscope to listen to the sounds generated by the heart while the auto type convert the sounds into visual signals.

The normal blood pressure is <140mmHg/<90mmHg, the first blood pressure is the systolic blood pressure and the second is the diastolic blood pressure.

The rubber cuff is placed on the arm such that it is in the same position as the heart while it is placed on a table. Using the sthethoscope, the first sound heard while releasing pressure from the pump is systolic pressure and the point where the sound disappeared is measured as the diastolic blood pressure.

Complication of high blood pressure
1. Congestive heart failure
2. Coronary artery disease
3. Aortic aneurysm
4. Cerebral vascular conditions
5. Renal diseases

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Treatment Management of high blood pressure

Antihypertensive drugs are of three types including;

  • Diuretics to reduce blood volume
  • Vasodilators to reduce peripheral vascular resistance
  • Sympathetic blockers to reduce sympathetic activities

Treatment/Management of low blood pressure
Use more salt. Experts usually recommend limiting salt in your diet because sodium can raise blood pressure, sometimes dramatically.

Drink more water. Fluids increase blood volume and help prevent dehydration, both of which are important in treating hypotension.

How to maintain a normal blood pressure
1. Eat healthy foods
2. Exercise regularly
3. Quit smoking
4. Quit drinking
5. Moderate intake of Salt

Having an optimum blood pressure is essential for good well-being and you should endeavor to check your BP from time to time to prevent sudden breakdown of the body